1 tropical American shrub or small tree having huge deeply palmately cleft leaves and large oblong yellow fruit [syn: papaia, pawpaw, papaya tree, melon tree, Carica papaya]
2 large oval melon-like tropical fruit with yellowish flesh
- pawpaw (Australia), but strictly speaking a different tree / fruit
- Spanish: papayo
This article is about the fruit, for the singer see Linnéa Handberg Lund
The papaya (from Carib via Spanish), is the fruit of the plant Carica papaya, in the genus Carica. It is native to the tropics of the Americas, and was cultivated in Mexico several centuries before the emergence of the Mesoamerican classic cultures. It is sometimes called "tree melon" or "pawpaw," but the North American pawpaw is a different species, in the genus Asimina.
It is a large tree-like plant, the single stem growing from 5 to 10 meters tall, with spirally arranged leaves confined to the top of the trunk; the lower trunk is conspicuously scarred where leaves and fruit were borne. The leaves are large, 50-70 cm diameter, deeply palmately lobed with 7 lobes. The tree is usually unbranched if unlopped. The flowers are similar in shape to the flowers of the Plumeria but are much smaller and wax like. They appear on the axils of the leaves, maturing into the large 15-45 cm long, 10-30 cm diameter fruit. The fruit is ripe when it feels soft (like a ripe avocado or a bit softer) and its skin has attained an amber to orange hue. The fruit's taste is vaguely similar to pineapple and peach, although much milder without the tartness.
It is the first fruit tree to have its genome deciphered.
Cultivation and usesOriginally from southern Mexico, Central America and northern South America, the papaya is now cultivated in most countries with a tropical climate, such as Brazil, India, South Africa, Sri Lanka, and the Philippines.
In Hawaii, two varieties of genetically-modified papayas: SunUp and Rainbow, have been grown by several growers since their development in the 1990s.http://www.hawaiipapaya.com/rainbow.htm By 2004, non-genetically modified and organic papayas throughout Hawaii had experienced widespread contamination from the genetically-modified varieties.http://www.grain.org/research/contamination.cfm?id=165
The ripe fruit is usually eaten raw, without the skin or seeds. The unripe green fruit of papaya can be eaten cooked, usually in curries, salads and stews.
Green papaya fruit and the tree's latex are both rich in an enzyme called papain, a protease which is useful in tenderizing meat and other proteins. Its ability to break down tough meat fibers was utilized for thousands of years by indigenous Americans. It is included as a component in powdered meat tenderizers, and is also marketed in tablet form to remedy digestive problems. Green papaya is used in Thai cuisine, both raw and cooked. Papain is also popular (in countries where it grows) as a topical application in the treatment of cuts, rashes, stings and burns. Papain ointment is commonly made from fermented papaya flesh, and is applied as a gel-like paste. Harrison Ford was treated for a ruptured disc incurred during filming of Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom by having papain injected into his back.
Women in India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and other parts of the world have long used papaya as a folk remedy for contraception and abortion. Medical research in animals has confirmed the contraceptive and abortifacient capability of papaya, and also found that papaya seeds have contraceptive effects in adult male langur monkeys, possibly in adult male humans as well. Unripe papaya is especially effective in large amounts or high doses. Papaya is not teratogenic and will not cause miscarriage in small, ripe amounts. Phytochemicals in papaya may suppress the effects of progesterone.
The black seeds are edible and have a sharp, spicy taste. They are sometimes ground up and used as a substitute for black pepper. In some parts of Asia the young leaves of papaya are steamed and eaten like spinach.
The papaya fruit is susceptible to the Papaya Fruit Fly. This wasp-like fly lays its eggs in young fruit.
Allergies and side-effectsCaution should be taken when harvesting, as papaya is known to release a latex fluid when not quite ripe, which can cause irritation and provoke allergic reaction in some people. The papaya fruit, seeds, latex, and leaves also contains carpaine, an anthelmintic alkaloid which could be dangerous in high doses.
Excessive consumption of papaya, as of carrots, can cause carotenemia, the yellowing of soles and palms which is otherwise harmless.
- The mature (ripe) fruit treats ringworm, green fruits treat high blood pressure, and are used as an aphrodisiac.
- The fruit can be directly applied topically to skin sores .
- The seeds are anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, and analgesic, and they are used to treat stomachache and fungal infections.
- The leaves are used as a heart tonic, analgesic, and to treat stomachache.
- The roots are used as an analgesic.
Names in other languages
- Bengali - PEnPe (Bengali: পেঁপে),
- Chinese - mugua (木瓜; literally "tree melon")
- Ewe - pawpo
- Filipino - kapayas
- Indonesian - pepaya (the word papaya originated from this word)
- Javanese - kates
- Portuguese - mamão (Brazil)
- Sinhala - papol, guslabu (literally "tree melon")
- Cuba - fruta bomba
- Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela - Lechosa
- Sri Lankan English - papaw
- Thai - malakau (มะละกอ)
- Vietnamese - đu đủ
papaya in Arabic: بابايا
papaya in Min Nan: Bo̍k-koe
papaya in Bulgarian: Папая
papaya in Danish: Melontræ
papaya in German: Papaya
papaya in Spanish: Carica papaya
papaya in Esperanto: Papajo
papaya in Persian: پاپایا
papaya in French: Papaye
papaya in Indonesian: Pepaya
papaya in Italian: Carica papaya
papaya in Hebrew: פפאיה
papaya in Haitian: Papay
papaya in Lithuanian: Papaja
papaya in Malayalam: പപ്പായ
papaya in Malay (macrolanguage): Pokok Betik
papaya in Dutch: Papaja
papaya in Japanese: パパイヤ
papaya in Polish: Papaja
papaya in Portuguese: Mamão
papaya in Romanian: Papaya
papaya in Quechua: Papaya
papaya in Russian: Папайя
papaya in Simple English: Papaya
papaya in Finnish: Papaija
papaya in Swedish: Papaya
papaya in Tamil: பப்பாளி
papaya in Telugu: బొప్పాయి
papaya in Thai: มะละกอ
papaya in Vietnamese: Đu đủ
papaya in Tonga (Tonga Islands): Lesi
papaya in Chinese: 番木瓜